Communicating Past And Present


Description

Grade Level(s):   Grade 2    

Subject Area(s):   Technology    


Detailed Plan

Lesson Summary:

In this lesson, second-graders interview people from two or three generations to explore how technology has changed the daily life and work experiences of people over time. This change focuses on communication and transportation. Students conduct interviews through various forms of communication (such as e-mail, phone and mail). Students keep written journals about what they are learning.

 

This lesson brings together technology, social studies and English language arts. It can be taught individually by the classroom teacher.

 

Estimated Duration: Four 45-minute sessions

 

Commentary:

Effective communication is an important life skill. This lesson provides opportunities to communicate across generations using technology in various ways. The technology and social studies indicators addressed in this lesson focus on technology’s influence and changes in daily life over time. This lesson demonstrates the natural integration of content area and technology indicators in a primary classroom. Use a similar format at most grade levels by adjusting the social studies indicators to incorporate appropriate content. The History standard and People in Societies standard provide several applicable indicators.

 

Pre-Assessment:

·        In a class discussion ask students:

o       What is change?

o       What is time?

o       What is communication?

o       How do we communicate with others?

o       Why do we communicate?

o       What is transportation?

o       What are some ways we use transportation?

o       Why might some of these changes occur?

·        Have students draw pictures of forms of communication and transportation.

·        Require students to place pictures of communication forms onto a timeline to demonstrate changes over time.

 

·        Ask students to respond in writing to the question: How did these forms of communication and transportation affect the lives of the people living in the different times? Tell them to include why they think the communication and transportation affected the lives of people living in different times.

 

Scoring Guidelines:

Determine student readiness for this lesson by:

·        Analyzing student responses during the class discussion to see what students know and do not know;

·        Examining pictures drawn of communication and transportation throughout history and consider the number of correct placements of pictures of communication and transportation on the timeline;

·        Reviewing journal responses about the effects of transportation and communication on individuals’ lives. Use student responses to guide instruction.

 

Post-Assessment:

·        Using a flip box, have students compare how these forms of communication and transportation affected the lives of the people living in the different time periods. See Attachment A, Flip Box Post-Assessment.

·        Use Attachment D, Post-Assessment Sample Rubric, to assess collaborative projects that used e-mail and messages to interview people from different generations.

·        Assess if students understand the terms "communication" and "transportation" from their journal responses. See Attachment G, Journal Rubric.

 

Scoring Guidelines:

·        Use the four-point rubric, Attachment A, Flip Box Assessment, to assess student understanding about various types of communication and transportation and their effects on daily life.

·        Use the sample rubric, Attachment D, Post-Assessment Sample Rubric, to address student performance in four areas: interview process, use of e-mail, composition of messages and journal entries.

·        Use the four-point rubric, Attachment G, Journal Rubric, to assess what students understand about communication and transportation and their changes over time.

 

Instructional Procedures:

Day One

1.      Discuss basic needs with students. Ask them what things humans need to live and why these things are important.

2.      Discuss how technology affects present daily lives. Ask students these questions:

·        What did you do when you got up today?

·        How did technology affect that activity?

·        How did you come to school?

·        What did technology have to do with that trip?

Continue through the events of the day, examining routine activities. Record these ideas on chart paper or the board.

3.      Ask the students if they see any patterns or groupings that show how technology affects their daily lives. Focus predominantly on transportation and communication. Have students organize the information into a T-Chart using sample Attachment F,
T-Chart. Be certain students understand transportation and communication. You may need to spend some time discussing these terms with the class.

4.      With students, generate a chart with additional present-day transportation examples and effects on daily lives. Do the same for communications. Keep these charts or have students list examples.

5.      Read a picture book that describes changes over time. The school library media specialist (SLMS) can share such stories during library class.

6.      Use guiding questions to discuss some of the changes described in the book, why those changes occurred and how those changes probably affected the daily lives of people during the times addressed. Be certain to clear up any misunderstandings from the pre-assessment.

7.      Create a time line to show the period of time in the book and its relationship to today. If students have never created a timeline before, lead them through the process at this time.

8.      Add student samples from the discussion to the time line. Show present time, the approximate time when parents were the students’ age, the approximate time when students’ grandparents were the students’ age and the approximate time when the students’ great-grandparents were the students’ age.

 

Instructional Tip:

Provide example pictures of various types of transportation and communication. If the students brought in pictures, use these. The pictures could come from various sources. Bookmark appropriate Web sites with pictures or create a Web site to organize the information for direct instruction or student use. Consider scanning photos and capturing pictures from Web sites to create a slide show using presentation software. Allow the SLMS to share library resources with students.

 


 

Day Two

9.      Review yesterday’s discussion by having the students explain transportation and communications effects on their daily lives. In addition, discuss changes over time.

10.  Show students pictures and additional images of various examples of transportation and communication from both past and present.

11.  Ask students to describe one of the examples to partners or to classmates in small groups. Require each student to tell what it is, what it does and how it helps. The description also could be written or delivered orally to the class.

12.  Tell students that for this project they will interview individuals. Ask students if anyone has ever conducted an interview or seen an interview. Ask students why a person would interview someone and what is important about an interview. Discuss important things to include in an interview. Tell students why it is important to create good questions for the interview. Be certain to point out that if questions are crafted carefully and thoughtfully, students will get stronger answers from the interview. Also, stress with the students that questions should not be yes or no answers. They should start the questions with why, how, what, etc. See Attachment C, Sample Interview Questions for suggestions. As students generate ideas, write these down for later reference.

13.  Demonstrate an interview with another adult or a student using written notes, voice recordings, videotapes or a scribe. After this mock interview, have students discuss what they saw based on the interview and the important things they should include in an interview.

14.  Give students these questions to use in a role-play interview with another student.

15.  Discuss other information needed during the interview such as the date, the names of people being interviewed or time period when the interview subject was a second grader. Be certain to record these on chart paper or the board.

16.  Practice using audio or videotape equipment, if available.

17.  As a class, send an e-mail to a nearby nursing home or retirement center to collect additional information and provide insight. Discuss with students how to send an e-mail and what to include in the subject line. Check district policy concerning student e-mail.

18.  Have students identify a people to interview and bring in e-mail or mailing addresses.

19.  Ask students to write a note to that person, explaining the need for the interview. Generate ideas for clearly requesting interviews such as including questions about transportation and communication used when they were eight-years old, how this has affected their lives and what changes have been made. Be certain to suggest possible times and dates for the interviews. Send the notes by e-mail or U.S. mail.


 

20.  Instruct students to add the following prompts to their journals:

 

Instructional Tip:

Write a letter to the parents, grandparents, great-grandparents or older friends to explain the lesson and the goals of the final project. Use this to help promote the lesson and guide their responses to the students.

 

21.  Homework Assignment: Assign students to conduct their interviews using the interview questions constructed by the class. Explain to students that these are just sample questions and they need to remember the discussion in class about the creation of questions. Review some of the points talked about in class. See Attachment C, Sample Interview Questions. Allow students one week to conduct the interviews.

22.  Homework Assignment Closure: After the interviews, assign students to respond to the following prompts in their journals:

 

Day Three

23.  Ask students to share some of the responses and information they collected during the interview with the class. Record these on chart paper.

24.  Categorize these findings and construct charts on communication and transportation, similar to the ones completed on Day One. This time, however, focus only on the responses from the interviews.

25.  Look for common and related effects on daily lives. Have students compare this list with charts or with notes in their journals from Day One.

26.  Ask students to discuss some of the similarities and differences between the present and the past charts. Discuss how things have changed over time. Ask students why some of these changes may have occurred.

27.  Introduce students to the Venn diagram, a graphic representation of information with similarities and differences. While explaining, construct a Venn diagram. Use Attachment E, Sample Venn Diagram to compare and contrast communication and transportation technologies’ effects on daily life in the past and present.

28.  Focus first on the center section of the Venn diagram. Students should know that items that fit in both categories belong in the center of the Venn diagram. Then, ask what would belong in the outer sections of the Venn diagram.

29.  Discuss with students how basic human needs remain the same, but the needs are met in different ways in different times. Use these guiding questions:

30.  Focus on the outer sections of the Venn diagram.

31.  Discuss with students how changes in transportation and communication technology have influenced people’s lives. Use these guiding questions:

32.  Have students respond to the following prompt in their journals: Explain our basic needs. Explain how transportation and communication technology have influenced your family or the people you interviewed. Finally, explain ways to communicate with others and ways to travel.

 

Day Four

33.  Have students share their journal writings with peers in small groups. Have them discuss similarities and differences.

34.  As a class, discuss how writing helps develop understanding and how they select important details to include in their writing. Ask students how ideas and thoughts change for them based on the writing and the details they learn. Ask students to name additional ways these journal writings contribute to their learning.

35.  Discuss different types of writing used in this lesson and how each helps students understand the concepts.

36.  Introduce the Flip Box, Attachment A, Flip Box Explanation.

37.  On the top of each flip box, have students draw, identify and tell how a transportation and communication example was used in daily life as an artifact from the past.

38.  Have the students flip up the top. In the box or beneath have them draw, identify and explain how a comparable object in the present is used such as an old rotary phone versus a cell phone, handwritten letters versus e-mail, a 1950s car versus a 2005 car.

39.  Discuss the changes in the technology. Describe the old phones and new phones, old cars and new cars. Ask them:

·        How are they alike and different?

·        How do their differences affect our daily lives?

·        Why do you think phones have changed?

40.  Have students respond to the following prompts in journals:

 

Instructional Tips:

·        The flip box allows the students to individually share what they know about the changes in the technology examples. In addition, it can demonstrate how those changes affect people’s lives.

·        The post-assessment, a compilation of student work already completed, is an integral part of the instruction rather than a separate component. The components include an interview, e-mail, messages, journal entries and flip box assessment. Assess each piece throughout the study. Maintain records throughout the study to help students, as needed, to ensure success for every student.

 

Differentiated Instructional Support:

Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s).

·        Writing down what an interview subject says may be a challenge for some second graders. Allow older siblings or parents to serve as scribes for the students. Or, allow students to use audio or video tape. Use the tapes for the whole class as a way to observe an actual interview experience. Enrich student understanding by allowing them to hear the words actually spoken¯to experience the tone, emphasis, etc. The tapes help students by allowing them to hear or view the interview as many times as needed.

·        Teach students to use writing supports such as spelling checks within a word processing program.

 

Extensions:

·        Take a trip to The National Road Museum field trip to see the dioramas of transportation on the National Road from early 1800s to present day as well as actual transportation vehicles from the past, such as the Conestoga wagon, bicycles and automobiles. The museum is an Ohio Historical Society facility near Norwich, Ohio.

·        Take a field trip to the Ohio Historical Society in Columbus to see many transportation and communication artifacts.

·        Construct a multimedia presentation using links to show comparisons between and among technologies.

·        Construct the time line using software.

·        After the lesson, have students e-mail the people they interviewed with their findings and thoughts about transportation and communication technologies.

 

Home Connections:

·        Make previous arrangements with a local senior citizen center or assisted living facility or other senior organization to ensure that each student has an interview partner.

·        Ask parents and the community members to share actual communication and transportation memorabilia. Grandparents may have old telephones that they could share. Historical vehicles also may be available in your community.

·        Assign students to write journal entries to the following prompt: Explain how communication and transportation technologies affect your daily life and how changes in these technologies affect all of our daily lives.

·        Have students bring e-mail addresses or mailing addresses of people that they can interview about transportation and communication technologies. These people should be from different generations, such as grandparents, parents, neighbors who are from a different generation, etc.

·        Have students bring in pictures or images of communication and transportation from the past and present.

 

For the teacher:    chart paper, markers, pictures of communication and transportation technologies and picture books describing changes over time

 

For the students:   chart paper for group activities, journals, computers with e-mail access, access to pictures of communication and transportation technologies and writing utensils,

                              optional: audio tape recorder, video recorder


 

Vocabulary:

·        audiotape

·        communication

·        compare

·        describe

·        e-mail

·        interview

·        journal entry

·        message

·        technology

·        transportation

·        change

·        video

 

General Tips:

This lesson addresses communication and transportation, but students could concentrate on addressing them one at a time when conducting interviews. Any student who does not have access to e-mail at home could e-mail the teacher or another student from the classroom.

 

Attachments:

Attachment A, Flip Box Assessment Explanation

Attachment B, Sample Letter

Attachment C, Sample Interview Questions

Attachment D, Sample Post-Assessment Rubric

Attachment E, Sample Venn Diagram

Attachment F, Sample T-Chart

Attachment G, Journal Rubric

Attachment H, Sample Flip Box Rubric


 

Attachment A

Flip Box Assessment Explanation

 

On the top of each flip box, have students draw, identify and discuss how the transportation or communication artifact was used in daily life in the past. Students should place these examples in chronological order. Have each student flip up the top and in the box space underneath draw, identify and tell how a comparable object is used in daily life in the present. For example, old phone versus e-mail (computer) or cell phone, 1950s car versus 2005 car.

 

Step One: the flip box is made by folding a paper lengthwise. A paper 11- by 14-inches or 12- by 16-inches works well. Step Two: then, fold the paper into sixths. Step Three: open the paper and cut each line to the original lengthwise fold line (leave one half uncut). Step Four: Fold on original lengthwise midline again so that each section of the top can flip up to reveal a box for writing and drawing both on top and beneath. The top box can identify a communication or transportation example from the past and the box inside can demonstrate the present.

 

Step One: Fold lengthwise

 

 

Fold line

 

 

 

 

Step Two: Fold into sixths

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Step Three: Open and cut halfway (to fold line).

 

 

Do not cut beyond this lengthwise midline.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cut                                 cut                                            cut                                cut                                          cut       

              

 

Step Four: Fold on original lengthwise midline again so that each section of the top can flip up to reveal a box for writing and drawing both on top and beneath.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Attachment B

Sample Letter

 

 

Dear ____________,

 

 I am _________________, a second-grader at _____________. I am learning about communication and transportation technologies in the past and present and how they have affected people’s lives over time. Could you please help me learn what daily life was like in the time when you were eight-years old?

 

I would like to interview you to learn what it was like when you were in second grade. I would like to set up a time for us to talk. Would _____________ at _________ work for you? Please let me know by e-mail or telephone if this will work. My e-mail address is _____________. My phone number is ____________________. Thank you for your help.

 

Sincerely,

_____________


 

Attachment C

Sample Interview Questions

 

Name of person interviewed_________________________

Student name ____________________________________

 

As a class, generate questions to ask during the interview. Sample questions follow.

 

Question

Response

In what year were you eight-years old?

 

 

 

 

 

 

How did you communicate with your friends, neighbors, doctor or others?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How did you get to school or to the grocery store?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How did this affect your daily life?

 

 

 

 

 

 

What have been the changes in how you communicate and travel?

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Attachment D

Sample Post-Assessment Rubric


 

 

 

 


 

 

Rubric Score

4

3

2

1

Interview Preparation

 

Used e-mail or letter to communicate clearly, explaining purpose of project and requesting an interview.

Used e-mail or a letter to communicate with another person.

 

Attempted to use
e-mail or a letter to communicate with another person.

Used neither an
e-mail nor a letter to communicate with another person.

Interview Process

 

Prepared questions for, collected notes from and asked additional questions during the interview.

Prepared questions for and collected notes from the interview.

Prepared questions for or collected notes from the interview.

Prepared no questions for the interview nor collected notes from the interview.

Interview

 

Interviewed a person from another generation; can articulate facts and make comparisons between present and past communication and transportation methods.

Interviewed a person from another generation; obtained information about present and past communication and transportation.

Interviewed a person from another generation; obtained information about past or present communication or transportation.

Interviewed a person from another generation, but obtained no information about past communication or transportation.

Description of Experience

 

Articulated a solid understanding of the process, including three or more details on how technology has changed, how people worked and lived in the past and provided three or more details describing changes for the next interview.

Articulated an understanding of the process, provided one or two details on how technology has changed, how people worked and lived in the past and one or two details describing changes for the next interview.

Articulated a basic understanding of the process, provided one or two details on how technology has changed, how people worked and lived in the past or one or two details described changes for the next interview.

Described little of the experience, added no understanding or adds confusion to the process; provided no information about how technology has changed how we work and live. Included no suggestions for changes for the next interview.


 

 

Attachment E

Sample Venn Diagram

 

 

 

Effects of communications or transportation on daily life.

 

 

 


 

 

Attachment F

Sample T-Chart

                                                                                                      

 

 

                     Transportation                                                   Communication

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Attachment G

Journal Rubric

 

Rubric Score

41

3

2

1

Clarity

 

Conveyed a clear, fully-developed message and includes many well-chosen details.

Provided three or four explanations with fairly well-developed thought and detail.

Provided one or two explanations of thought and details; showed beginning stages of developing thought.

Unclear, rarely develops statements fully.

Topic

 

Provided several thoughts on topic; included three or more additional insights.

Provided three or four thoughts on topic; included one or two additional insights.

Included one or two thoughts on topic.

Off-topic.

Completeness

 

Completed three journal entries.

Completed two journal entries.

Completed one journal entry.

Incomplete.

Understanding

 

Showed a great understanding of communication and transportation technology changes over time and their effect on daily lives; demonstrated depth in the understanding of similarities and differences; provided seven or more examples of communication and transportation technology.

Showed a full understanding of communication and transportation technology changes over time and their effect on daily lives; demonstrated a depth in understanding similarities and differences; provided five or six examples of communication and transportation technologies.

Showed a developing understanding of communication and transportation technology changes over time and their effects on daily lives; however, lacks depth in understanding similarities and differences; provided three or four examples of communication and transportation technologies.

Showed no growth in understanding communication and transportation technology changes over time or their effects on daily lives; no understanding of similarities and differences; provided only one or two examples of communication and transportation technologies.

 


 

 

Attachment H

Sample Flip Box Rubric

 

Rubric Score

4

3

2

1

Technology or Communication Example

 

Provided seven to eight transportation and communication technology examples; used historical transportation and communication technology examples plus offered examples not discussed in class.

Provided four to six transportation and communication technology examples; used historical transportation and communication technology examples.

Provided one to three transportation and communication technology examples; used historical transportation and communication technology examples.

Gave no transportation and communication technology examples or used only transportation or communication technology (not both).

Explanation of Use

 

Provided detailed explanations for the examples as well as new insights; showed great understanding of the technologies’ effects on daily lives.

Provided complete explanations for the examples and showed a full understanding of how these technologies affected daily lives.

Provided brief explanations for the some examples, but shows little understanding of how these technologies affected daily lives.

Provided no explanation as to the impact of these examples on daily life.

Comparable Object

 

Provided seven to eight current transportation and communication technology examples.

Provided four to six current transportation and communication technology examples.

Provided one to three current transportation and communication technology examples.

Provided no current transportation and communication technology examples.

Timeline

 

Provides a time line which arranges all of the transportation and communication technology examples in chronological order.

Provided a timeline and arranged most of the transportation and communication technology examples in chronological order.

Provided a time line, without arranging the transportation and communication technology examples in chronological order.

Provided no timeline.

 

Ohio Standards Connection

 

Technology

 

Technology and Society Interactions

 

Benchmark C

Describe and demonstrate how technology has had an influence on our world.

 

Indicator 1

Demonstrate and give examples of how technology has changed the way people lived and worked throughout history.

 

Technology and Communications Applications

 

Benchmark C

Participate in group projects and learning activities using technology communications.

 

Indicator 1

Use e-mail to share information in a teacher-directed group e-mail activity (e.g., comparing class information with another class at a remote location).